Category Archives: OS

Linux Tips ( grep the text without hashes and blank lines )

In our second post of linux tips i would like to share a very simple example in which i will use grep tool to remove all the hashes and blank lines from a file.

In our example we will use file1.txt with the following content

linux-11oz:/test # cat file.txt 
#The file with hashes

This is a test file

With lots of spaces

and few lines with


So lets remove the hashes and blank lines with single grep command

We can use the following trick

linux-11oz:/test # grep . file.txt | grep -v "#"
This is a test file
With lots of spaces
and few lines with

The “.” will remove the blank lines and  “-v” will invert the match of #

Thats how simple it is. If you know a better way of doing it , Please send me an email or comment.



Salman A. Francis


Linux Tips ( chmod tip )

Hey Guys this is going to be a new series of posts in which i will be sharing some cool linux tips.  You can watch the video of this post on

So here is the first tip Chmod:

I hope you guys are already familiar with chmod command if not checkout my Youtube “Linuxking” channel for theses commands.

With Chmod you can change the mode of the files and directories.
chmod 775 dir  command will change the permission on directory with rwxrwxrw-

Also using -R option with chmod will change the permission on the directory as well the content within the directory with same permissions.

However lets say you want to change the permissions of a directories to executable within a directory without changing permissions of file use the below tip.

Lets say you have a directory “test1” & “test2” inside “test” directory

test directory has also a  file inside it called file1.txt

file1.txt has permission rw——-

directory test1 has permission rwx——

directory test2 has permission rw——-

linux-11oz:/test # ls -ltr
total 0
-rw------- 1 root root 0 Mar 22 17:06 file.txt
drwx------ 1 root root 0 Mar 22 17:07 test2
drwx------ 1 root root 0 Mar 22 17:07 test1

Now if you try to change the permission with a simple ” chmod -R command ” of all the directories to “executable” inside test directory you could also change permission of the file inside test diretory.


linux-11oz:/ # chmod -R ug+x test/
linux-11oz:/ # cd test/
linux-11oz:/test # ls -ltr
total 0
-rwx--x--- 1 root root 0 Mar 22 17:06 file.txt  (You can see that the file also became executable)
drwx--x--- 1 root root 0 Mar 22 17:07 test2
drwx--x--- 1 root root 0 Mar 22 17:07 test1

Now to avoid such situation we will use X instead of x, lets see the impact of X with chmod command

linux-11oz:/ # chmod -R ug+X test/
linux-11oz:/ # cd test/
linux-11oz:/test # ls -ltr
total 0
-rw------- 1 root root 0 Mar 22 17:06 file.txt (You can see the file's permission has not changed to executable)
drwx--x--- 1 root root 0 Mar 22 17:07 test2
drwx--x--- 1 root root 0 Mar 22 17:07 test1
linux-11oz:/test #

I hope you have Enjoyed this tip, keep visiting our site for more information.

Recovery of the File System from Disaster

Hey Guys, long time no see…Well i am back and this time the issue is File System.

What Happened ?

Well My Backup Server’s root partition ran out of space due to some issue, and since it was on LVM (Logical Volume Manager) i took some space from my /home partition (it was 400 GB ) and added to my root partition. Following commands were used to resize the partition.

umount /dev/mapper/centos-home

lvreduce -L 200G /dev/mapper/centos-home

Note first i unmounted the partition and then reduced the space from my /home partition which was mounted as /centos-home
I took 200 GB out of it and added to my root partition.

The Mistake: I forgot to remount /home to /dev/mapper/centos-home

But i extended the partition with the following command:

lvextend -r -l+100%FREE /dev/mapper/centos-root

As per above command the partition will be re-sized to the 100% free space available from the reduced volume. Of course it was 200 GB. All was good when i saw the partition sized changed from no space to +200 GB. But then i realized that i was not able to mount /home to /centos-home and that was the time when all problem started. I “Rebooted The Machine” and when it came back it refused to enter the normal boot prompt but went into “Emergency mode”

Things i Tried:

I tried to fix the partition with xfs_repair tool , but in vain , and i received the error that “Cannot Find Super Block “

I tried to run the fixes couple of time but failed every time.

The Fix:

I fixed the issue by the following commands:

lvremove /dev/mapper/centos-home
lvcreate -L 200GB -n home centos

mkfs.xfs /dev/centos/home

mount /dev/mapper/centos-home

Luckily there was no important data on my /home partition and i was able to save my server.

Good Practice:

If you every fall prey to such situation, remember to “Backup” to an external drive and then proceed with the above mentioned technique to rescue yourself from such difficult situation.

I hope it will help some one some where, Let me know with your feedback.

Thanks & Best Regards,

Salman A. Francis

Linux Practical Security Course

Dear Members ,
I am happy to announce that Linux Practical Security by LZH Project is complete. We will launch it shortly. Please support us by buying and rating this course. For first 20 buyers there will be a discount of $5. Total cost is $25. You can also book your copy by sending me email to Please take a look at the introductory video here:

Unable to Connect “The Squid Error “

So today i had a strange problem when i was only able to access and not other sites. I was able to browse gmail, but not mail ru. Everything was working fine but out of no where this error “Unable to Connect” appeared on my Browsers. It was kinda strange, since i made no changes to my system” Also i was not sure if it’s the system or the Gateway.
Observation on System:
1) Both Firefox and Chrome giving the same problem.
2) I was able to browse with Chrome if Ultrasuf Extension was enabled.
3) Firebug reported “Aborted” in the Net tab

Steps taken:

Restarted the System
Changed the IP address
System Not Fixed Continue reading

Missing panel in Ubuntu Mate?

So something went wrong and your panel does no longer appear even after the restart. Here is what you can do after you pulled all the hair.

  • Open your terminal window by clicking the desktop and choosing Open in Terminal
  • Type
    mate-panel --reset

    and press Enter

That should do it, But what if it doesn’t?

  • Open terminal again and type

    and press Enter

  • Go to Look And Feel tab on the left and chose Tweak on the right
  • Find where panel settings reside and chose any look of panel that you like and tweak some settings

It has not solved too much for me because the bottom panels were not showing no matter what, but at least I could work and search for the further fixes.